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|Wysłany: Pon 15:19, 23 Wrz 2013 Temat postu: hollister paris Ramifications Of The Patriot Act O
Exactly six months after the 9/11 Al-Qaeda attacks on the [url=http://www.gotprintsigns.com/hollisterpascher/]hollister paris[/url] United States, the U.S Congress enacted the Patriot Act. Quite a number of people lamented at the haste and secrecy by which the law was passed. Consequently, the law had to be accompanied by a lot of serious flaws, which breached certain fundamental principles, rights, and freedoms of U.S citizens. This paper explores the USA Patriot Act, which was enacted soon after the 9/11 attacks on the Trade Center in the U.S and its ramifications for schools in the country. Among the liberties of U.S citizens enshrined in the constitution that the Patriot Act infringes on is the freedom of association. In this context, [url=http://www.gotprintsigns.com/monclerpascher/]moncler[/url] the Act empowers the government to monitor religious, educational, social, cultural, and political institutions without identifying any suspicious criminal activities in terror investigations (Gouvin, 2003). Freedom of speech and right to liberty are the other U.S values that the Patriot Act infringes upon since it empowers the government to prosecute record keepers such as librarians if they inform anyone that the government subpoenaed information related to [url=http://www.achbanker.com/home.php]hollister[/url] a terror investigation. Although the Patriot Act has implications that cut across all spheres of life in the U.S., this [url=http://www.rtnagel.com/louboutin.php]louboutin pas cher[/url] paper focuses on the ramification of the Act for schools.
Ramification of the Act for Schools
As a result of such hastily enacted laws as the Patriot Act, U.S citizens are concerned with the diminishing state of their liberties as provided in the constitution. Furthermore, there is a notion that the many challenges and terror-related threats the U.S faces cannot be prevented or addressed by [url=http://www.achbanker.com/home.php]www.achbanker.com/home.php[/url] hastily enacted and ill-considered laws such [url=http://www.vivid-host.com/barbour.htm]barbour uk outlet[/url] as the Patriotic Act, which allows law enforcement agencies' [url=http://www.rtnagel.com/airjordan.php]nike air jordan pas cher[/url] personnel to carry out covert searches of homes of U.S citizens who are not even suspects. Also affected in this regard are institutions such as hospitals, banks, colleges, universities, libraries, businesses, physicians, schools and other organizations (Wong, 2006). Worse still, the Patriotic Act has helped create the crime of domestic terrorism, which is currently applied even to lawful protests and political forums by school and college students. The Patriotic Act permits the detention of students for participating in forums and protests without the benefit of due process or counsel upon arrest.
What is more, the Patriotic Act permits the [url=http://www.gotprintsigns.com/hollisterpascher/]hollister pas cher[/url] surveillance of suspected or possible terrorist behaviors, actions that only end up intimidating civilians and endangering the public. The situation is more serious for schools and other learning institutions whose [url=http://www.mquin.com/giuseppezanotti.php]giuseppe zanotti pas cher[/url] records the Patriotic Act permits government officials to access without the permission or knowledge of the school authorities or specific owners or custodians of these records. For instance, with a written application to a court of law, the Act vests on the Attorney General the powers to order an educational agency to reveal and assemble educational records that are relevant to an authorized investigation of a domestic or international terrorist offense. By requiring educational institutions to monitor student internet use and communication, the Patriotic Act infringes on students' privacy by placing consequences for students visiting and/ or creating certain types of websites (Cole & Dempsey, 2002). This act thus further limits students' freedom of speech. In accordance to certain sections, language, and content of the Patriot Act, public schools [url=http://www.mquin.com/giuseppezanotti.php]giuseppe zanotti sneakers[/url] are required to disclose internet records and other technology related communication to federal authorities devoid of the awareness or approval of students, parents, or faculty (Brasch, 2005).
Many individual and group stakeholders decry the effects the Patriot Act has on the liberties and rights of U.S citizens as enshrined in the constitution. For instance, while the constitution offers all U.S citizens the [url=http://www.sandvikfw.net/shopuk.php]hollister sale[/url] right to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, unless there are reasonable and probable cause to carry out searches and seizures, the Patriot Act contravenes these freedoms from unreasonable searches (Cole & Dempsey, 2002). The Act allows the government to search and seize Americans' papers and effects without probable cause to assist terror-related investigations. In fact, the Patriot Act ignores the principles of warrants, probable cause, oath, or affirmation in its seizures and searches (Cole & Dempsey, 2002). The law also infringes upon peoples' right to a speedy and public trial as provided for in the constitution since the government may jail a U.S citizen indefinitely without a trial according to the Patriot [url=http://www.vivid-host.com/barbour.htm]www.vivid-host.com/barbour.htm[/url] Act (Brasch, 2005).
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